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蜂王的形态显微图

2013-04-12 01:45:45   作者:OK蜜蜂网   浏览次数:  评论:0 
摘要: 这篇文章主要是从各个角度用显微镜观察研究蜂王,每个图片代表蜂王的一部分,图片下面都有相关信息的描述。TOPTOBOTTOM:queen,workeranddronehoneybees.drawnapproximatl...

这篇文章主要是从各个角度用显微镜观察研究蜂王,每个图片代表蜂王的一部分,图片下面都有相关信息的描述。

蜂王的形态显微图

TOP TO BOTTOM: queen, worker and drone honey bees.

drawn approximatly to scale. Body hairs omitted. (X8).

 

蜂王的形态显微图

EYES, HONEY BEE CASTES

TOP RIGHT. Worker compound eye, lateral view. The eye is surrounded by the short-haired gena (cheek). The dense, coarse, long interfacetal hairs of the eyes are apparent. (x31)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Queen compound eye, lateral view. Compare with the top right micrograph. (x31)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Drone compound eye, lateral view. This and the other views of the eyes show a sizable visual field, which is greatest in the drone. The drone bee can see forward, to the side, downward, upward, and to some extent rearward. (x 31)

TOP LEFT. Worker, vertex of head. The antennae are visible (bottom of the field) but most of the other structures are obscured by hairs. In the upper center, the circular outlines of the two lateral ocelli (but not the median ocellus) are barely visible. (x 31)

MIDDLE LEFT. Queen, vertex of head. Compare with the top left micrograph. The ocelli are obscured by hairs. (x 31)

BOTTOM LEFT. Drone, vertex of head. The two rounded eminences (top of thefield) are the dorsal sectors of the compound eyes, which are contiguous in this region. In the lower center of the field are the three ocelli (one is almost completely covered with hairs). These are located down on the face of the drone rather than in the dorsoanterior portion of the head as in the queen and worker. The dorsal bonding of the compound eyes has apparently displaced the ocelli. (x 31)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN HEAD

Frontal View of the queen head

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN EYES

TOP LEFT. Trio of queen ocelli, two lateral and one median. Long body hairs drape over these socalled simple eyes. (x 58)

TOP RIGHT. Higher magnification of the median ocellus. A single lens serves as the dioptric apparatus for hundreds of underlying photoreceptor cells. The optics are such that no image is formed at the level of the photoreceptor cells. ( x 600)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Survey micrograph of the queen compound eye showing its hirsute character and the glabrous median ocellus (top of the field). The lateral ocelli are obscured by the angle of view and hairs. (x 50)

BOTTOM LEFT. Interfacetal hairs, which are socketed, relatively large, and long. The depth of the focal plane is evident, as the focus is maintained over the considerable curved expanse of the eye. (x 496)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN ANTENNA, BASE AND ELBOW

BOTTOM. Survey from the vertex of the queen head showing the hairy hemispherical compound eye with its array of interommatidial hairs. Both antennal bases are present; the left scape (first antenna segment) is the prominent short antenna segment, followed by the much longer pedicel (the first segment after the scape), and five flagellum segments follow thereafter, while six additional segments are outside this field. The flagellum moves relative to the scape by the action of two muscles that span the pedicel and insert on the first flagellum segment. (x 53)

TOP RIGHT. Base of the scape, seated within a membrane-lined socket that lies on the wall of the frons. Presumed mechanoreceptive hairs are in rows on the wall of the scape. (x 110)

TOP LEFT. Close-up of the articulation of the scape with the antenna socket. As the antenna moves, the hairs on the scape base may be differentially bent against the socket side. These hairs may be mechanoreceptors that monitor the attitude of the scape. (x 330)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN ANTENNA SURFACE

BOTTOM RIGHT. Last five segments of the queen antenna. The antenna surface is profusely covered with a variety of uniformly distributed sense organs. On each segment, usually at the proximal and distal border, are small clusters of pit organs, which appear as bright spots. (x 144)

TOP RIGHT. Terminal segment of queen antenna. A few stout peg organs (sensilla basiconica) and stout long pegs are seen among the majority of sensory hairs. The plate organs are not visible. ( x 270)

TOP LEFT. Medial surface of the second antenna segment of the queen. A few pit organs show brightly. It is not known why these pit organs reflect more secondary electrons to the scanning electron microscope collector and therefore appear brighter. The faint circular outlines of the plate organs are visible. (x 330)

MIDDLE LEFT. Higher magnification of the surface on the penultimate segment of the queen antenna. The bright pit organs are relatively sparse but are aggregated. Placoid (plate) and trichoid (hair) sensilla surround the pit organs. ( x 2,200)

BOTTOM LEFT. Close-up of a plate organ and several trichoid sensilla. The crack that extends along the outer rim of this plate organ is probably artifactual. At this magnification the subtle cuticular ribbing relief around the organ's periphery is visible. Exquisitely small pores (not visible) line these ribs and permit odorant molecules to enter and make contact with the sensory dendrites circumferentially arrayed under the plate. (x 5,500)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN HEAD, ANTERIOR VIEW

BOTTOM. Queen head. At the base of the antennae and projecting downward is the roughly rectangular clypeus; extending in front of that is the smaller, largely rectangular labrum (upper lip). Both mouthparts are very hirsute. Along the lateral sides of the clypeus-labrum are the clawlike mandibles. Projecting forward from between the mandibles are the galea and behind these are the labial lobes. (x 56)

TOP LEFT. Queen mouthparts, dorsoanterior view. Here the mandibles are better outlined and part of their articulation with the genae is visible. At this viewing angle the labrum completely covers the galea and labial lobes. (x 41)

TOP RIGHT. Medioproximal surface of the mandible where it adjoins the clypeus. Over 40 small, socketed hairs (possibly mechanoreceptors) make contact with the sides of the clypeus in normal mastication. If these hairs are innervated and mechanosensory in nature, they could monitor the attitude of the mandible relative to that of the clypeus-labru123. ( x 438)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN TENTORIAL PITS

TOP. Frontal view of antennae (top) and the clypeus with labrum (bottom). Two anterior tentorial pits (arrows), lying on the epistomal sulcus, are cannular (tubular) structures that extend inward to form part of the tentorium (internal skeleton) of the head. The latter provides general structural support and cuticular braces for muscle attachment. (x 90)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of the right anterior tentorial pit. This is one of the openings of the two hollow cuticular tubes that extend through to the posterior tentorial pits. (x 600)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of the queen right anterior tentorial pit. ( x 750)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN PROBOSCIS, LATERAL VIEW

BOTTOM LEFT. Sharply bent glossa (tongue). Over half the length of the glossa, the principal feature of this micrograph, is covered by the embracing proximal segments of the labial palps. The labial palps terminate in a pair of budlike appendages that appear to be sensory in nature. The most extended appendage is the glossa. (x 65)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of the terminus of the labial palp. Each "bud" has two segments and bears short cuticular spines and pegs, which may be sensors for taste and touch. (x 180)

TOP LEFT. Proximal portion of the glossa and labial palps. The mandibles with their naked tips incompletely cover the glossa and the hairy labrum abuts and somewhat overhangs the paraglossae. (x 65)

TOP RIGHT. Base of the mandible (bottom) where it articulates with (hinges on) the gena (top). An array of tiny cuticular denticles is visible on the intersegmental "membrane" (x 169)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MOUTHPARTS, POSTERIOR VIEW

TOP. Mouthparts, posterior view. The innermost projecting piece represents the retracted glossa (tongue), which is much smaller than that of the worker. Distally the glossa is tipped by a (brightappearing) flabellu123. At the base of the glossa are the bilobed paraglossae; these two pieces emanate from a flattened sclerite called the prementurn. Immediately lateral to the glossa are the two foursegmented labial palps. The one on the right of the glossa has been bent back to better display the underlying maxillary galea. When feeding, the two palps and the two galea come together to form a tube or funnel through which liquids are drawn up by the mechanical movements of the glossa and the suction created by the cibarium (not visible). (x 56)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Higher magnification of the underside of the queen glossa showing its bilobed construction, flabellum at the tip, and the sparse hairs (sensilla chaetica) of the lateral-lying labial palp. A few very short pegs (sensilla basiconica) are seen near the sensilla chaetica. Of particular interest is the high density and overlapping (at the tips) nature of the sensilla chaetica on the glossa. (x 121)

BOTTOM LEFT. Close-up of the underside of the left labial palp showing the two types of putative chemoreceptor sensilla, sensilla chaetica (the longer hairs) and sensilla basiconica (the very short but stout hairs). (x 327)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MOUTHPARTS , LABIAL PALP

BOTTOM LEFT TWO distalmost segments of the labial palp. Less than a dozen sense organs are at the tip. (x388)

BOTTOM RIGHT Tip of the penultiniate labial palp segment and the base of the apical segment. Chenioreceptor and/or mechanoreceptor hairs arise at the base of the distal segment. ( x 1,068)

TOP Articulation between the first and second segments of the queen labial palp. Peg organs and sensilla chaetica are obvious features. Cuticular scales (probably uninnervated) are circumferentially arrayed. (x 1,333)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN HEAD POSTERIOR VIEW

BOTTOM Proboscis and other mouthparts posterior view of the head. The mouthparts are extended forward. Most structures in the other micrographs of this plate are visible in this field. The arrow points to the maxillary palp. ( x 40)

TOP RIGHT Head, posterior view. The large opening (lop) is the foramen magnum, to which is attached the cervix (or neck, through which pass the nerve cord, aorta, and esophagus as they span the head to the thorax). The opposing crescent-shaped apertures flanking the basal part of the foramen are the posterior tentorial pits. At the base of the foramen is the triangular postmentum, which is situated atop the bilobed prementu123. Embracing the latter are the stipes and galea. Here the mouthparts are retracted beneath the head. (x 37)

TOP LEFT Higher magnification of the postmentum region. Flanking each side of the postmentum is the cardo. ( x 112)

BOTTOM LEFT Maxillary palp. This largely unadorned structure is without obvious cuticular sensilla. Possibly the "blebs" are campaniform sensilla. ( x 564)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN CERVIX, HEAD DETACHED

TOP RIGHT. Occipital foramen on the posterior of the head. This hole communicates with the cervix (neck), which in turn attaches to the prothorax. On each side of the foramen are the posterior tentorial pits, which extend to the posterior tentorial bridge within the head. Between pit and foramen is the lateral occipital sclerite with its rows of mechanoreceptive hairs. (x 66)

TOP LEFT. Close-up of the left posterior tentorial pit. At the extreme uppermost edge and below near the lower right edge of the pit are smaller depressions associated with the dorsal and ventral bridges. (x 198)

MIDDLE. Ventral aspect of the bilobed cervical membrane, which is covered with short cuticular spines. ( x 540)

BOTTOM. Close-up of these cuticular spines on the bilobed portion of the cervix. Up to 20 blunt, short, fingerlike processes may emanate from each scale at its distal end. (x 5,400)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN CERVIX

TOP Ventral cervix (neck) region showing the rather narrow and mombranous character of the cervix, which connects the head to the rounded right and left episternal plates of the thorax (bottom) The surface of the cervix is studded with circumferentially arranged, tiny cuticular scales. (x 90)

BOTTOM Dorsal cervix region. The cervix, with several folds and covered with small cuticular studs, visibly connects the prescutum of the thorax (bottom) to the occipital region of the head. (x 67)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN CERVIX, CLOSE-UP

BOTTOM LEFT Dorsoposterior view (viewed obliquely) of the postocciput of the queen where the head joins the darker-appearing membranous cervix (neck). Long body hairs cover the thorax. The arrow indicates an area further magnified in the top left micrograph. ( x 84)

TOP LEFT Lateral occipital sclerite (hair plate) (arrow in the bottom left micrograph) bearing putative mechanoreceptor hairs that are bent when this plate touches the episternum of the prothorax. In bending, these hairs inform the central nervous system of the angle of the head relative to the rest of the body. (x 912)

RIGHT Higher magnification of the cuticular scales adorning the membranous cervix. The adaptive value of these scales and their short, pectinate processes is unknown at present. (x 2,200)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN THORAX

Posterior region bearing the relatively large oval spiracle (arrow) is actually the first segment of the abdomen (see also Plate 1.36) although it is broadly fused to the thorax.

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN WINGS

Photomontage of the proximal third of the forewing and its associated plates at the point of the wing's articulation with the thorax (the head Is to the top, dorsum to the right). Visible at the wing hinge area is the largest plate, the tegula, which is closest to the body. Above the tegula and to the left is the humeral plate; to the right is the median plate, which seemingly communicates with the vannal vein (the stout vein that projects approximately through the center of the wing in this viewing angle). The high density and fine character of the microtrichia covering the wing surface is evident. Despite its rather stiff appearance, the wing is remarkably flexible and resilient, capable of propelling the bee at speeds of over 20 km per hour. With their wings "disengaged" and folded back over the body, queens are able to vibrate their wing muscles to produce the sounds known as piping or quacking. (x 34)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN FOREWING BASE

TOP Forewing base showing a variety of hair types. Some functional inferences can be drawn, based on the size and position of the hairs. Short and long trichoid sensilla may have an exoreceptive function and respond (bend) to wind shear forces. The long ones may also be proprioceptive in nature if they contact the pleural surface when the wing is upright and inform the central nervous system of wing attitude. The body hairs are probably not innervated. Chemosensory pit organs are also present. Behind the pits (lop) is an axillary sclerite that articulates with a portion of the pleuron. (x270)

BOTTOM Higher magnification of the pits and short trichoids at the wing base. A pit in the lower center of the field appears to have a recessed dome (arrow) and may be a campaniform sensillu123. The hair and the pit may both house sensory neurons capable of monitoring the wing flexion. (x 3,600)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN WING BASE MEMBRANES

TOP LEFT Forewing base and stub of the hind wing (center right of //I(, field Interesting lateral membranous areas in the middle of the field (arrows) are in higher magnification in the other three micrographs of this plate (see also Plates 1.18, 1.19, 1.21, and 1.22). (x 55)

BOTTOM LEFT Rosettelike cuticular spines at the wing base arrayed in rows with high-relief, cuticular sculpturing between these spine clusters (left arrow hi top left micrograph (x 23,400)

TOP RIGHT Pleural surface beneath the hind wing base (right arrow in top left micrograph). Acutely tipped spines rise from a surface covered with small cuticular knobs. (x 2,200)

BOTTOM RIGHT Pleural membrane at the base of the forewing (center arrow in top left micrograph) Elsewhere on the body cuticular sculpturing is characterized by more prominent (than in the top right micrograph), short, stout spines in furrows between rows of taller spines. The cuticular surface is covered with a series of low-lying ridges. ( x 23,800)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN WING ARTICULATION

BOTTOM. Articulation at the queen wing base. The leading marginal veins of the forewing and hind wing pivot from axillary sclerites and project diagonally in this micrograph. A portion of the ventral wing membrane (center of the field) possesses no hairs but rather has low-lying cuticular protrusions and multipeaked ridges (top micrograph). (x 95)

TOP. Forewing base. The underside of the wing exhibits several types of cuticular rugosites. The function of this surface relief is not known. (x 5,100)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN WING BASE SCLEROTIZED PLATES

TOP LEFT Base of the forewing (the head is to the tipper left). The hairy tegula partly covers the triangular humeral plate.

TOP RIGHT. Hair plate of socketed (presumed) mechanoreceptors on the interior edge of the humeral plate. Electron beam damage probably caused the bending and twisting of hairs. Rotational movements of the tegula and hurneral plate bend these hairs; if innervated, they could monitor such dislocations. ( x 66)

MIDDLE LEFT Another view of the forewing base showing the upraised humeral plate. The arrows point to structures shown in far higher magnification cation on the bottom left, bottom right, and middle right micrographs ( X 1'5 0)

BOTTOM Close-tip of the radius vein. Branched hairs emanate from this part of the wing base. Structures surrounding this vein base are visible in the middle left micrograph, indicated by the left arrow. (x 2,600) MIDDLE RIGHT. Condylelike projection at the wing base with hairs aparentlyly in contact with the wing margin. Hairs project at different levels and angles from this knob. These hairs, if innervated, may be mechanoreceptors recording wing beat frequency and/or tension and flexion of the wings. A low-magnification view of this structure in relation to other wing structures is in the middle left micrograph (right arrow) ( x 300)

BOTTOM RIGHT High-magnification view of a fascicle of about 20 socketed hairs in a cuticular protuberance at the wing base. Features adjacent to this structure are visible in the middle left micrograph (middle arrow) These hairs, if innervated, may be m echan o receptors monitoring a single kind of temporal displacement, such as the upstroke or downstroke of the wing. ( x 60)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN W1NG HOOKS

TOP. Hooks on the hind wing close to the thickened base of the articulating forewing. Particularly apparent are the hind-wing hairs on the leading edge of the hind wing (compare with peg organs of the worker, Plate 2.23). These hairs project forward and are found on either side of the 15 hooks. (x 170)

MIDDLE LEFT. Higher magnification of the trailing edge of the forewing clasped by the wing hooks in flight. The hairs adjacent to the trailing vein of the forewing are socketed and may be mechanoreceptors capable of sensing the attack angle of the wings. The bent tips of a few hairs may have been caused by electron beam damage. ( x 480)

BOTTOM LEFT. Hooks on the leading edge of the hind wing, each with a slightly forked terminus. The bent and twisted nature of the hook is apparent from this angle; in three dimensions the hook extends in two directions. (x 605)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Enlargement of the middle hook in the bottom left micrograph. The socket for the hook is less pronounced than that of the worker and no peg organs are present, only socketed microtrichia that may be capable of monitoring the proximity of the wings. (x 1,210)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN FOREWING SURFACE

TOP LEFT Dorsal surface of the forewing showing a dense population of short, slender, socketed hairs that may be mechanoreceptors that provide aerodynamic sense, that is, monitor the vector and magnitude of air currents over the wing surface. (x 550)

TOP RIGHT. Higher magnification of a single hair, revealing an oval rather than round socket. Presumably the hair's flexion is confined to the long axis of the oval so it can record wind in one axis only. (x 3,300)

MIDDLE. Ventral surface of the forewing. The setae are less dense than on the dorsal surface. If innervated, some unsocketed hairs may be chemoreceptors. (x 510)

BOTTOM LEFT. Three unsocketed setae on the ventral side of the forewing. (x 1,100)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Socketed seta on the ventral side of the forewing vein. The tip can not be resolved well, but its bulbous nature suggests a terminal pore. If so, this hair is probably a chemoreceptor. (x 5,500

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN HIND WING SURFACE

TOP LEFT. Dorsal surface of the hind wing. Numerous hairs are evenly spaced over the surface. Wing hooks are visible on the leading edge of the wing. (x 168)

TOP RIGHT Close-up of the wing in the top left micrograph. Socketed hairs arise from the vein and nonsocketed hairs are in the membranous, interveinal area. Veins are often conduits for nerves, so the socketed hairs may be innervated and have a mechanoreceptor function. (x 800)

BOTTOM LEFT. Ventral surface of the hind wing. The sparse, scattered, nonsocketed hairs give the appearance of peg organs (sensiIla basiconica).(x 450)

BOTTOM RIGHT Higher magnification of a hair, which looks like a grooved peg, on the ventral hind wing. Such hairs may be chemoreceptors. The depression or pit (bottom) delimits the base of a hair on the opposite side of the wing. ( x 4,200)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN PROTHORACIC SPIRACLE

Top. Prothoracic spiracle, which lies beneath the spiracular lobe, or hairy plate (arrow) (the head is to the top left of this oblique view). The forewing base is visible (upper right). This spiracle is protected by the spiracular lobe and shrouded with body hairs, which must be removed, as in the other micrographs in this plate, before the spiracle and its interior can be observed. (x 56)

BOTTOM LEFT. Portion of the spiracular lobe, the atrium of this spiracle, and its immediate interior. This area is revealed when the hairs are removed from the thorax and a superficial slice of cuticle is taken from this region. (x 1,500)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Close-up of the tracheal atrium revealing the airway without any of its cuticular overcoats. The inner wall of the atrium has cuticular ridges from which project small spines or hairs, which support the integumental "pocket" concept of the atriu123. The tracheal opening has been removed. (x 300)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Higher magnification of the cuticular hairs and ridges of the atrium of the prothoracic spiracle. The cuticular reticulum extends along the floor of the atriu123. (x 1,200)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN FORELEG

BOTTOM. Photomontage of the prothoracic leg (foreleg). The three main segments of the leg (distal to proximal) are the tarsus, tibia, and the femur (the largest of the three). At the proximal end of the tarsus (basitarsus) is the sharply notched "antenna cleaner." A closing lobe (fibula) or spur extends to partly cover the notch. In grooming, the antenna is passed repeatedly through this notch to clean the sensory hairs and plates of the antenna. (x34)

TOP LEFT Prothoracic leg bases (legs removed; head is to the top). The two empty coxal cavi ties are side by side. The tips of the maxillae (top) are situated between the coxal cavities. (x 60)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the intersegmental membrane between the trochanter and femur. The irregularly furrowed character of this surface is interesting, as are the unsocketed, tiny teatlike cuticular spurs. ( x 2,400)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN FORELEG, CLOSE-UP

TOP LEFT. Survey of the basal portion of the leg. The segments (from left to right) are the basitarsus, tibia, and (projecting at a 45' angle to the tibia) the femur. The "beak" at the end of the tibia is the fibula. ( x 3 1)

MIDDLE LEFT. Basitarsus (left), which articulates with the tibia. The lobe on the tibia is the fibula, which closes over the haired notch for antenna cleaning. (x 120)

BOTTOM LEFT Antenna cleaner, or comb. This semicircular fringe of stiff hairs is located on the basitarsus at its junction with the tibia. The antenna is pulled past these hairs to remove debris. When the foreleg is flexed, the notch with hairs is overlaid by the short fibula, forming a cuticular circle that enables all sides of the antenna to be cleaned at once. ( x 384)

BOTTOM RIGHT Posterior portion of the femur-tibla Joint of the foreleg. (x 144) close-up of the cuticular relief and the short spurs that adorn the back of the femur-tibia joint (intersegmental membrane). A comparison of this field with the corresponding area in the bottom right micrograph shows the limited area over which this kind of cuticular ornamentation occurs. (x 168)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MIDDLE AND HIND LEG BASES

TOP RIGHT Ventral view of the middle and hind (rig t) leg bases. The coxae and trochanters of the bind (metathoracic) legs are on the right, those of the middle (mesothoracic) legs on the left. The rectangular plate between both sets of legs is the sternellu123. The rhomboidal plate bounded by the four leg bases is the propodeal sternum; it is punctuated by a center apodeme. (x 47)

BOTTOM RIGHT Ventral view of the base of the metahtoracic leg. The major appendage here is the metathoracic coxa. The distal appendage that projects to the bottom of the field is the trochanter. ( x 55)

TOP LEFT. Sternal sclerite situated between the metathoracic coxae. This plate is more properly called the propodeal sternu123. ( x 50)

MIDDLE LEFT Higher magnification of the propodeal sternum and the adjoining coxae of the mesothoracic legs. The hair plates (arrow) at the bases of the coxae are probably mechanoreceptors monitoring leg movement. (x 100)

BOTTOM LEFT Apodeme (cuticular invagination) and the surrounding propodeal sternu123. ( x 300)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MIDDLE LEG BASES

BOTTOM RIGHT Thorax, ventral view. The middle (mesothoracic) coxae are on the extreme right, one above the other. The groove (line) running side to side through the middle of the field is the median sulcus. This division separates the right mesosternum and mesoepisternum from its left counterpart. The arrow points to one of the "pincushion" structures further magnified in the top right and top left micrographs. ( x 40)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the left coxa in the bottom right micrograph. The "eyelid" cuticular structure is an intersegmental membrane, and at the extreme basal portion of the field is a small portion of the coxal condyle. Immediately above the condyle (arrow) is the "pincushion" structure indicated by the arrow in the bottom right micrograph: this structure is even further magnified in the top left micrograph. (x 96)

TOP LEFT Forty-odd tiny setae. This may be a collection of inechanoreceptors (making up a hair plate), whose probable function is to irionitor leg loading and position by spine displacement through coxal contact with the basal margin of the mesosternum ( x 664)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of one of the two hairless areas visible (at 7 and 11 o'clock) in the survey of the upper ven ter of the thorax in the bottom right micrograph. No cuticular hairs exist in this (the 7 o'clock) area nor are there any empty sockets or other indications of cuticular sensilla. Also absent is the normal cuticular relief. The function, if any, of these areas remains a mystery. (x 208)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MIDDLE LEG BASE

TOP Close-up of the leg base and coxal cavity of the middle leg. The articulating (intersegmental) "membrane" is characteristically covered with rows of tiny spinelike processes. (x 324)

BOTTOM LEFT. Close-up of the cuticular spines arising from the intersegmental "membrane" between the mesothoracic coxa and trochanter of the queen. The linearity of the rows of these spines is apparent in this view. (x 4,800)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of one of the unsocketed spines showing its general morphology and blunt tip. (x 18,000)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MIDDLE AND HIND LEGS

Photomontage of the middle, or mesothoracic (left), and hind, or metathoracic (right) legs. At the leg base the first segment, the coxa, is almost completely obscured by the hairs of the mesothoracic pleurites. The next segment, the trochanter, is visible, extending (horizontally) to articulate with the medium femur. The tibia joins the femur (at the "knee") and extends downward. The mesothoracic tibia is about as wide as the femur, but the hind tibia is flattened and much broader. The second downward-projecting segment is the basal tarsomere, which is clearly much medium than the other, more distal tarsal segments. In the queen the metathoracic basal tarsomere lacks the pollen collection apparatus of its counterpart in the worker (see Plates 2.28, 2.29, 2.30, and 2.31). Four remaining tarsal segments are present; the last one (pretarsus) is elongate and bears claws. These first four tarsal segments have no muscles, but a common tendon traverses all of them and inserts into the flexor muscle of the pretarsus. ( x 28)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN MIDDLE LEG

TOP LEFT Articulation between coxa and trochanter of the middle leg. (x 140)

TOP RIGHT Digitiform, scale-covered cuticular spur at the tibia-basitarsus joint. ( x 31)

BOTTOM Higher magnification of the tiny spur in the top right micrograph. It appears to arise from the intersegmental membrane between the two leg segments. This miniscule, pineconelike spine may be an external proprioceptor-mechanoreceptor that monitors leg flexion or torque. The comparable appendage in worker bees is called the wax spur (see Plate 2.27). ( x 360)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN FOREFOOT AND HINDFOOT

TOP Pretarsus of the metathoracic (hind) leg. Its two main features are the paired claws surrounding the toung like like aroliu123. About a half dozen long, large, curved hairs project backward from the median sclerite. At the base of the arolium, and projecting proximally (leftward), is the planta, which is covered with spines that extend distally. The unguitractor, which is not well displayed in this field, is located to the left of the planta. The medial surface of each bilobed claw has several ranks of fine hairs and a few chaeticalike sensilla. (x270) Metathoracic pretarsus facing the viewer, dorsal side up.

BOTTOM RIGT The median sclerite is visible, along with the stout spines that issue from it. Several different forms of hair are present on the base of the last tarsal segment (top). (x 168)

BOTTOM LEFT Spiny aroliu123. As the claws relax, the arolium assumes the pursed shape. When the claws are active and extended, the arolium is drawn upward and spreads out between the claws. The bee uses this fleshy lobe to grip surfaces that cannot be penetrated or grasped by the claws. (x 378)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN ABDOMEN

Gaster (abdomen), which consists of a first, rather indistinct segment (attached to the thoracic region) with a prominent spiracle, the petiole (waist), and the remaining posterior gaster segments. The dark spots indicate the relative position of spiracles on the first abdominal segment and on that portion of the abdomen behind the petiole. There is one spiracle on each side of the first seven segments (see also Plate 1.16).

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN I- PETIOLE LATE PAL AND VENTRAL VIEWS

TOP LEFT Lateral view of the petiolar region, or "waist," the constricted area between the first and second abdominal segments. On the left is the "bump" of the propedeum (first abdominal tergal plate); on the right, across the narrow petiolar isthmus, is the second abdominal tergite. The 1, saddle" between the two segments is the membranous roof of the petiole pocket. ( x 6 1)

BOTTOM LEFT Close-up of the petiole. Immediately below and on the left is the first abdominal sternite. On the right is the second abdominal sternite. ( x 2 10)

TOP RIGHT Ventral view of the petiole. A membranous area divides the ringlike first abdominal sternite (left) from the cuticular ring that is the second abdominal sternite. (x 55)

BOTTOM RIGHT Petiolar region. On the right is the ringlike second abdominal sternite. Projecting leftward from that sternite is the wrinkled and flexible intersegmental membrane. (x 175)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN PETIOLE, DORSAL VIEW

TOP LEFT. Dorsal view of the essentially hairless petiole. The dark vertical sector (with one socketed cuticular hair) is the posterior portion of the mesoscutellum The intersegmental membrane spanning the propodeum and second abdominal tergite appears as a trilobed structure. (x 140)

MIDDLE LEFT. Tangential orientation of the petiole (the head is to the top). The numerous cuticular spines in the interseginental membrane are in a somewhat ordered array. (x 150)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of the multipeaked cuticular spines on the intersegmental membrane of the petiolar region. The interspine areas have a low-lying bumpy texture. ( x 2,600)

TOP RIGHT Petiolar region (the head is to the left). The propodeum has been tipped forward so that its full posterior extent is visible as it attaches to the gaster (abdomen). The slender petiolar attachment is the vital linkage that connects the spherical thorax (with the first abdominal segment) with the even more massive gaster. (x 66)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Dorsal view of the interseginental membrane of the petiolar region (the head is to the upper left). Compare this micrograph with its left side counterpart in the bottom right micrograph (x 175) BOTTOM RIGHT Lateral view of the petiolar region. At the extreme lower right (arrow) is the dorsal portion of the second abdominal spiracle. (x 60)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN ABDOMINAL SPIRACLES

TOP LEFT. Survey of the pleural portion of the first and second abdominal segments. The small spiracular apertures (one per segment) (arrow) are obscured by extensive hair cover. (x31)

BOTTOM LEFT. First abdominal spiracle on the propodeal segment of the thorax. This is the largest spiracle (along with its opposite side twin). Its elevated cuticular rim surrounds a shallow atrium, and the interior rim is the true opening into the tracheae. The tracheae are closed off from the inner (interior) rim by a sizable valve, which is incompletely Seen here because of a thin film of dried material emanating from the trachea. (x 240)

TOP RIGHT. Abdominal spiracle (upper left) With difficult\,, the covert and linear character of this aperture can be made out. ( x 37)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Higher magnification of aii abdominal spiracle. A cuticular hair fence of tergal orign incompletely covers this aperture, and several forms of hairs are present. The inner wall of the atrium Is replete with very short hairs. ( x 360)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN THORAX AND ABDOMEN, CUTICULAR HAIRS

TOP Portions of two terminal abdominal segments. Of interest is the cuticular relief that extends over these segments and the fringed and glabrous cuticular hairs that are abundant over the entire body. ( x 263)

BOTTOM LEFT. Cuticle and cuticular hairs of a metathoracic pleurite. Most of these cuticular hairs are unfringed and unbranched, and the tips are sharply pointed. Some of the long branched hairs along the periphery of the abdominal tergites and sternites are attached to gland cells that may be the source of queen pheromone obtained by workers during grooming. (x 550)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of a cuticular hair shaft on an abdominal sternite. The fluted nature of the side wall is not artifactual, although the "blebs" on the shaft wall may be debris. (x 550)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN STING

LEFT Photomontage showing the entire ventral surface of the sting. The two barbed lancets, in close apposition, overlay the stylet trough to form the venom channel. On either side are the distorted (in specimen preparation) sheath lobes of the sting. Each sheath lobe is extended proximally from beneath an oblong plate. Medial to each plate, near the top of the montage is a forked structure; each "tine" or ramus connects proximally with a triangular plate, which in turn is associated with a quadrate plate. The latter sclerite ties alongside (to the Outside of) the oblong plate. See the Appendix, Fig. A. 1. (x 94)

MIDDLE RIGHT Lateral view of the abdominal tip. The ultimate abdominal segment seen here is number seven; the seventh tergal and sternal plates enclose most of the sting as well as segments eight to ten. The aperture through which eggs and feces pass when expelled from the body also functions as the entrance to the sting chamber. The fuzzy projections arising from the floor of the sting chamber are the tips of the sting sheath. The arrow at the bottom left of the field points to the area further magnified in the bottom right micrograph. (x 31)

BOTTOM RIGHT Medial surface of the abdominal tip (ventral sclerite) revealing myraids of stout cuticular spines (arrow in right middle micrograph) ( x 62)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the abdominal tip in the right middle micrograph showing the setose condition of the sting sheath at its proximal origin. (x 250)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

QUEEN STING. CLOSE-UP

TOP LEFT Distal tip of the sting apparatus showing the terminus of the venom channel. Two barbed lancets in the foreground oppose each other (earlier workers reported that the queen sting had no barbs). Behind the lancets is the troughlike stylet. When stinging, the lancets slide back and forth on serrated tracks (lower arrow). The tracks form the trough at the tip of the stylet. Each thrust pulls the sting deeper into the victi123. Both the track and the groove in each lancet (not visible) are serrated, probably to reduce friction. Note the small "indentations" (one per barb) (upper arrow) on the lateral margins of each lancet (see the top right micrograph). In comparison with worker barbs, the queen barbs are less formidable, which may permit the queen to sting repeatedly without loss of the sting. Other work suggests that the queen sting is covered with a surface lubricant while that of the worker is not. (x 1,040)

TOP RIGHT Highly magnified view of the indentation indicated by the upper arrow in the top left micrograph. One indentation is associated with each barb on the lancets and stylet. This structure appears to be a campaniform sensillu123. If so, such a proprioceptor might monitor pressure generated by the relative depth of insertion of the sting or flexion of the lancets. (x 15,000)

 

蜂王的形态显微图

EGG

BOTTOM RIGHT Egg produced by the queen bee. Both end are rounded, and one pole seems medium than the other. At this magnification the cuticular relief characteristic for this species is barely visible, (x 110)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the egg surface showing, the reticulated pattern of the cuticular ridges. ( x 400)

BOTTOM LEFT Close-up of the large pole of the egg showing the linear ridge system enclosing polygonal areas of the egg surface (chorion). The arrow indicates the area further magnified in the inset. (x 600)

BOTTOM LEFT INSET Micropyle of the egg. (x 600)

TOP LEFT Polygonal zones on chorion. The basal chorion surface is randomly studded with minuscule, discrete bumps. (x 1,250)

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