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雄蜂的形态显微图(上)

2013-04-12 01:44:56   作者:OK蜜蜂网   浏览次数:  评论:0 
摘要: 这篇文章用显微镜从雄蜂各个角度进行拍摄说明,一张图片为一个角度,图片下面为相应的解说文字。DRONEHEADFrontalvieofthedronehead. DRONECOMPOUNDANDSIMPLEEYETOP...

这篇文章用显微镜从雄蜂各个角度进行拍摄说明,一张图片为一个角度,图片下面为相应的解说文字。

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE HEAD

Frontal vie of the drone head.

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE COMPOUND AND SIMPLE EYE

TOP RIGHT. Compound eye covered with interfacetal hairs. These innervated setae arise in the interstitial space between adjacent facets of the compound eye. At the base of each hair is a single bipolar neuron. These hairs are mechanoreceptors; by bending they monitor direction of wind currents and airspeed. (x 140)

TOP LEFT. Higher magnification of the corneal surface of the compound eye showing the socketed base of each hair and the hexagonal outline of each lens facet. Lens facets at the periphery of the eye often have other frontal view geometric shapes. (x 1,400)

BOTTOM LEFT. Longitudinal section through the corneal lens of the compound eye. The deep cleft through the lens marks the boundary of one ommatidium; this recess also provides the space necessary to house the neuron and glia of the hair. The biconvex design of each lens facet and the cuticular laminations are also evident. (x 1,650)

BOTTOM RIGHT. One medial and two lateral ocelli. These three "simple" photoreceptor organs are located on the vertex of the head between the two compound eyes. Ocelli usually do not form images. These photoreceptors may monitor light levels and possibly provide input to some photoperiodically entrained circadian rhythms. No function is known for the profuse bundles of fine hairs between the ocelli. (x 60)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE ANTENNA AND BASE

TOP. Drone antenna. There are twelve sections of the antenna. The drone antenna has far fewer trichoid sensilla (the very short white 11 whiskers" on the flagellum) than do queen and worker antennae (see Plates 1.6 and 2.4). (x 53)

BOTTOM RIGHT Higher magnification of the antennal base showing the basal knob of the scape inserting into the membrane-lined antennal socket. Microtrichia are abundant over this "membrane." Ranks of socketed (putative) mechanoreceptor hairs completely encircle the base. (x 347)

BOTTOM LEFT Articulation between two antennal (flagellar) sections. Each subdivision (they are not true segments) fits into the succeeding one without any real articulation or musculature. The base of each annular portion inserts into a small cavity of the one behind it. Spines are absent on the intersegmental membranes. (x 304)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE ANTENNA

TOP Elbow dividing the antenna into a basal stalk (scape) (extending diagonally to the left) and a more flexible distal portion (projecting downward). The pedicel is the second segment of the antenna and located at the elbow (after the scape); the flagellar "segments" follow. The flagellum can be moved relative to the scape by two muscles that originate in the scape and insert in the pedicel. Flagellar "segments" do not articulate with each other, nor are muscles present between flagellar sections. (x 88)

BOTTOM Close-up of the elbow. The intersegmental membrane between scape and pedicel is studded with short, slender hairs. Some of the stouter, longer setae of the pedicel are bent as the pedicel-flagellum twists. These hairs may be proprioceptors that, when bent, report the attitude of the flagellum in space to the central nervous syste123. (x 720)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the lateral surface of the first flagellar segment of the antenna in the top left micrograph, immediately below the pedicel-flagellum boundary. A dozen stout, socketed hairs (sensilla chaetica) are interspersed among plate organs (sensilla placodea). The center dome of these plate organs is exquisitely thin cuticle that is easily broken in specimen preparation. A few intact plate organs are visible on the periphery of the field. (x 660)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE ANTENNA Tip

TOP RIGHT Terminal three segments of the antenna. At this magnification all that is visible are peg organs and the faint, pebble-grained effect created by the profusion of plate organs. Both peg and plate organs are olfactory organs. The pits on the last two segments are really aggregations of a half dozen or so pit organs (sensilla coeloconica, sensilla ampullacia). (x 140)

TOP LEFT. Higher magnification of three antennal segments. The three sense organs (peg, pit, and plate sensilla) are more evident at this magnification. ( x 420)

BOTTOM LEFT. Ten pit organs set in a cuticular depression and surrounded by plate organs. One socketed peg is visible at the top. The presence of free space at the peg base may permit the hair shaft to move; if so, this hair may be a mechanoreceptor. (x 4,200)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Cuticular depression on the antenna] segment. In this view pit organs predominate but two "pits" (at 11 o'clock) are capped; these organs may be campaniform sensilla, and if so, they must be mechanoreceptors monitoring strains of the cuticle. It is not known why this whole cuticular depression appears so bright. Even if a residual static charge at this locus attracted more gold in the shadowing process, it remains a mystery why such a charge would be preferentially located here and persist after death. ( x 1,705)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE ANTENNA TIP, VENTRAL SURFACE

TOP Low magnification of the antenna tip. At least four morphological variations of the peg organs can be resolved, and most of these are close to the antenna terminus. The plate organs are located more posteriorly and are circumferentially arranged around this segment (x 306)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of the antenna showing thick pegs, plate organs, and pit organs. Each pit organ bears a curious bright margin around its orifice. Odor molecules enter the pit as easily as they penetrate the tiny pores that radiate out in spokelike fashion on the plate organs. (x 1,100)

BOTTOM RIGHT Thick-set peg organs and more slender, curved hairs, all set in sockets. The curling tips of some of these hairs may be the result of electron beam damage. (x 3,300)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE ANTENNA SURFACE

BOTTOM RIGHT Survey of the terminal seven segments of the antenna. (x 255)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of the tip of the antenna showing the packed, oval plate receptors (sensilla placodea) and the whiskery appearance of short peg (basiconic) sensilla and slender hairs (sensilla chaetica). There are nine distinct types of sense organs located on the worker antenna (only three types are seen in this field). Compare with Plate 2.4, worker antenna. (x 60)

TOP Higher magnification of the plate, peg, and chaetica-type receptors on the penultimate segment of the antenna. (x 1,800)

MIDDLE RIGHT Plate and peg organs on the next to last segment of the antenna. Both types are olfactory organs. ( x 3,750)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE MOUTHPARTS

TOP LEFT Photomontage of the retracted mouthparts, ventral view. In the Lipper center of the field are the incisorlike (triangular), paired galeae, and to the immediate right is one of the two labial palps. Crossed mandibles arise above and are at right angles to the galeae, with the paired antennae visible above the mandibles at this viewing angle. The upright tufts of setae on either side of the mandibles are the interfacetal hairs of the compound eyes. The cervix and paired episternal sclerites are visible below the galeae. Compare with Plates 2.7 and 2. 10, the worker mouthparts. (x 31)

TOP RIGHT Retracted mouthparts, frontal view. At this viewing angle the curved and pointed galeae partly shroud the labial paips and almost com- pletely cover the short glossa (tongue), whose terminus is visible at the Point where the galeae first cross. At the top of this figure are the hirsute, crossed mandibles. (x 65)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of the frontal view. At the very top of the field is the platelike clypeus, and successively below that are the labrum, mandibles, and galeae, which largely cover the labium with the exception of the final segments of labial palps. (x 63)

MIDDLE RIGHT Interior surface of the mandibles. Two tiers of stout, socketed hairs are on this medial surface. (x 135)

BOTTOM RIGHT Higher magnification of several hairs on the medial side of the mandible in the middle right micrograph. (x 450)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE MOUTHPARTS

TOP LEFT Drone mouthparts anterior view. The two dagger-shaped galeae overlie the paired (and somewhat splayed-out) labial palps. The relatively short glossa (tongue) is hidden from view by these mouthparts. At the top of the field hirsute mandibles extend horizontally, at right angles to the galeae and palps. (x 65)

TOP RIGHT. Close-up of the surface of a galea showing several stout, socketed hairs with fluted sides. The hairs arise from the transversely furrowed cuticle. (x 1,600)

BOTTOM LEFT. Drone mouthparts, posterior view. The very hirsute, relatively short, cylindrical glossa hangs down between the flanking labial palps. (x 55)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Distal four segments of the lablurn. (x 43)

BOTTOM RIGHT Labial palp with its few peg and trichoid sensilla. The tip of the galea is immediately below the labial palp. (x 170)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE GLOSSA

TOP LEFT. Glossa (tongue) protruding out over the retracted galeae of the maxillae. Behind the galeae and rather obscured by them are the paired labial palps. (x 63)

TOP RIGHT. Partially dissected ventral view of the relatively short glossa flanked by the four-segmented labial palps. The length of the drone glossa is less than half that of the worker. Compare with Plate 2.7. (x 65)

BOTTOM LEFT. Posterior view of the glossa, with further dissection of the mouthparts (bilateral excision of the labial palps). The short glossa hangs down between the right and left galeae, each with hairs on the medial margin. Between the galeae and partly covered by the glossa is the postmentu123. The arrow points to an area further magnified in the middle right micrograph. (x 75)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Posterior view of the base of the glossa. A glimpse of the glossa is on the extreme upper left. On the right several cuticular hairs of the galea rest on the side of the postmentum (arrow in bottom left micrograph). (x 270)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Distal tip of the glossa. The expanded, spoonlike tip is called the flabellu123. (x 720)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE HEAD, DETACHED, POSTERIOR VIEW

MIDDLE. Round occipital foramen ,vith sheared-off tissues protruding out of it, flanked by two crescent-shaped, posterior tentorial pits. Two ventrolaterally situated hair plates are located on the cuticular ridge immediately alongside the occipital foramen. (x 144)

BOTTOM LEFT. Entire left 28-setae hair plate. (x 550)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Higher magnification of the left hair plate showing the socketed nature of each mechanosensory hair. (x 1,760)

TOP. Small apodeme at the base of the right tentorial pit in the middle micrograph. The recess leads to the ventral postoccipital tentorial ar123. (x 900)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE- CERVIX, DORSAL VIEW

TOP Drone cervix (neck). In specimen preparation, the head was extended from the thorax to stretch out and show the extent of the membranous cervix. Flexuous body hairs from the pronotum are in the foreground. The lateral anchorages for this cervical membrane lie above the posterior tentorial pits, while the inedial (main) insertion is onto the run of the occipital foramen. ( x 144)

BOTTOM Cuticular scales on the cervix at higher magnification. Each ellipsoidal scale shows one to eight small tubercles projecting from its dorsal surface. (x 2,700)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE CERVIX

TOP Dorsolateral hair plate contacting the back of the head (right and middle arrows in inset). These forty trichoid sensilla, seemingly in rows at this viewing angle, are cervical in origin while the branched hairs are from the thoracic episternu123. ( x 288)

TOP INSET. Survey of the whole, stretched, dorsal cervix. (x 88)

BOTTOM. Dorsolateral cervical ridge (left arrow in inset, top micrograph) extending vertically through the center of the field. The lower extremity of the dorsolateral hair plate is at the top of the field (the head is to the left). (x 360)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE CERVIX, VENTRAL VIEW

MIDDLE Three types of (uninnervated) cuticular ornamentation (the posterior head is to the top). The branched hairs are from the thorax; the low, elliptical scales are in the posterior half of the cervix (neck); and the taller, tufted, multipointed scales are near the occipital region. (x 144)

TOP Overall cuticular hair distribution and density of the anterior cervical tufts. ( x 720)

BOTTOM Ventrolateral mechanoreceptor hair plate on the occipital process of the episternum (upper left quadrant). The cuticular "hole" (far left) may be part of an apodeme. (x 800)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE CERVIX, VENTRAL VIEW

TOP LEFT Extended cervix (neck) (the head is to the top, the thorax to the bottom). ( X 88)

TOP HIGHT Central "lobe" area on the ventral cervix. Cuticular scales III this area are for the most part solitary spines or blebs. Compare with Plate 2.17, the worker cervix. (x 2,200)

MIDDLE Cervical membrane with the cervix extended. Each cuticular scale here has five to seven spines, in several lengths. (x 3,600)

BOTTOM Cervical membrane with the neck compressed. In this condition the cuticular spines from neighboring scales mesh and seemingly overlap. (x 3,600)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE THORAX

Lateral view of the drone thorax.

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE FOREWING BASE

Top. Photomontage of the drone forewing base. At the far left is the head with the hairy compound eye. At the bottom is the spiracular lobe. Three sclerites are in descending order in the right half of the field; most dorsal is the triangular tegula, below which are the supraepimeron and infraepimeron. The pleural sulcus forms the left side margin for the latter pleurite. The main veins of the leading edge of the wing extend to the right (3 o' clock). ( x 3 1)

BOTTOM. Close-up of key wing sclerites. The triangular tegula is the dominant sclerite in the left half of the field. To the right of the basal angle of the tegula is the bilobed second axillary sclerite. This plate is regarded as the pivotal sclerite of the wing base. To the right of the second axillary sclerite is a roughly trapezoidal (in outline) sclerite called the median plate. (x 100)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE FOREWING BASE, CLOSE-UP

TOP. Drone forewing base (the head is to the top, dorsum to the right) (see Plate 3.18, top micrograph). The probable sensory receptors in the bottom three micrographs are located on the pleural plate (arrow). (x 190)

BOTTOM LEFT. Close-up of a uniquely branched hair and nonsocketed hair above on an area covered by cuticular scales. ( x 1, 175)

BOTTOM MIDDLE. Hair in the bottom left micrograph, with the field extended to show the small peglike sensillu123. (x 1,700)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Higher magnification of the cuticular "peg" in the bottom middle micrograph. The peg is unusual in that it is very flattened, rather than columnar. (x 8,500)

 

雄蜂的形态显微图

DRONE WING, DORSAL SURFACE

BOTTOM RIGHT. Drone wing, dorsal surface, near the anterior wing margin and within the ultimate third of the wing. Wing veins show up as dark wide lines meandering through the wing. (x 70)

BOTTOM LEFT. Close-up of the forewing surface showing single rows of socketed setae emanating from the veins. These may be mechanoreceptors involved in monitoring wing speed. (x 280)

TOP RIGHT. Leading edge of the forewing. These setae, which project from the anteriormost vein, are socketed and may possibly be mechanoreceptors. This field is an area about two-thirds of the distance to the wing tip. (x 650)

TOP LEFT. Vein on the dorsal surface of the forewing showing several ranks of socketed hairs on either side of the wing vein. (x 720)PLATE 3.20. DRONE WING, DORSAL SURFACE

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