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工蜂的形态显微图(下)

2013-04-12 01:44:19   作者:OK蜜蜂网   浏览次数:  评论:0 
摘要: 本文介绍了工蜂的形态图,通过显微镜对工蜂各个角度进行了拍摄研究,每个图片就是一个拍摄方位,图片下面有相应的说明。WORKERWINGSURFACE,VENTRALVIEWTOPLEFTVentralwin...

本文介绍了工蜂的形态图,通过显微镜对工蜂各个角度进行了拍摄研究,每个图片就是一个拍摄方位,图片下面有相应的说明。

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER WING SURFACE, VENTRAL VIEW

TOP LEFT Ventral wing surface in the midwing area showing the complete rank of 21 hooks engaging the posterior marginal fold of the forewing. Setal distribution patterns are evident, and a few setae arise from the wing veins. (x 70)

BOTTOM Ventral surface of the forewings (upper and hind wings (lower) hooked as in flight. The forewing posterior margin fold or curl is especially distinct (x 170)

TOP RIGHT. Setae from the ventral surface of the forewing. In this and the middle right micrograph, the wing surface is slightly wrinkled, which may be due in part to drying after death. ( x 330)

MIDDLE RIGHT Higher magnification of the intervein setae from the ventral surface of the hind wing. ( x 330)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER WING HOOKS

TOP LEFT. Survey of a posterior section of the forewing (foreground) in proximity to the corresponding anterior margin (radius and media veins) of the hind wing with the hooks (hamuli) that connect both wings in flight. Microtrichia and small peg organs cover the anterior margins of the worker hind wing (while only microtrichia are noted in queens; see Plate 1.23) and on the opposing portion of the forewing. (x 77)

MIDDLE LEFT. Higher magnification of the hind wing hooks with nearby short peg organs. Hooks arise from a socket; each hook is bent twice, at the midpoint and at the tip. (x 600)

TOP RIGHT. Close-up of three peg organs. Each socket has a limited amount of free space that might permit some movement of the peg. (x 5,400)

BOTTOM. Hind-wing hook articulating with the thickened posterior margin of the forewing. Thus connected, the two wings function essentially as one, which provides a medium gliding surface. The forewing is driven while the hind wing passively trails in flight. The wing beat frequency is approximately 235 to 250 per second. (x 2,660)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER FORELEG

MIDDLE LEFT. Photomontage of the entire leg. The deeply notched antenna cleaner is at the proximal end of the basitarsus. A stress receptor (the subgenual organ) on the interior of the tibia detects substrate vibration (sound). The arrow indicates an area further magnified in the top right micrograph. ( x 3 1)

TOP LEFT Articulation between tibia and femur The wrinkled, flexible intersegmental membrane has small cuticular spines. (x 200)

BOTTOM Higher magnification of the tibia-basitarsus antenna cleaner (comb). The deep notch is on the proximal end of the basitarsus, over which lies the fibula, a thumblike spur that extends from the distal portion of the tibia. The antenna is placed in the notch and drawn past the fine comb and fibula. All castes have an antenna cleaner. (x 144)

TOP RIGHT Five tarsal segments (arrow in center left micrograph). Each of the four most proximal tarsomeres is connected via monocondylic articulations. Their concerted movement is effected by the shortening of a tendon that traverses the entire length of these segments. (x 105)

MIDDLE RIGHT Claws and the fleshy lobe (arolium) lying between the claws. Each claw has two principal points, one short and rather rounded, the other elongate and sharper. Several long and slender hairs are on each claw. (x 180)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER ANTENNA CLEANER

TOP LEFT Tibia-basitarsus joint. The tangential view of the bulbous fibula (bilobed spur) from the tibia positioned over the antenna cleaner notch on the basitarsus is particularly useful because it gives another dimension to the vital grooming apparatus (previously, the fibula was described as a large, flattened spur). (x 140)

TOP RIGHT Tibia -basitarsus joint in profile. The extent of overlap be- tween the fibula and the semicircular notch on the basitarsus shows that the antenna would be almost completely surrounded by the antenna cleaner when the basitarsus is fully flexed. (x 86)

BOTTOM LEFT. "Fan" of the seventy spinelike hairs of the tarsal comb. These hairs are responsible for cleaning the outer surface of the antenna. (x 260)

BOTTOM RIGHT Tarsal hairs. The pectinate quality of the tarsal hairs is evident here. Ridges or corrugations on the medial expanse of each hair, at right angles to the long axis of the hair, give additional cleaning capacity and traction to the antenna cleaner. (x 1,560)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER FOOT

BOTTOM LEFT Last tarsomere and pretarsus. Claws are on either side of the wrinkled aroliu123. Above the arolium is the heavily bristled planta; above the planta is the unguitractor, which is without seta but has rows of low-lying cuticular scales. This structure may function like the heel of a hand, providing an Opposing surface for the claw. (x 1,50)

BOTTOM RIGHT Frontal view of the medial surface of the foot. The bilobed character of the unguitractor is better seen in this view, as well as the deep pit or fossa (arrow) at the base of the subordinate claw. (x 210)

TOP Higher magnification of the planta and unguitractor. (x 540)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER MIDDLE LEG

TOP RIGHT Lateral view of the mesothoracic (middle) lea. The femur is to the right of the tibia, which bears [lie basitarsus. A prominent tibial spine is present at the tibia-basitarsus Joint. (x 40)

BOTTOM RIGHT Close-up of the tibia-basitarsus joint of the middle leg, the tibial spine, and the so-called (but inappropriately named) wax spur (see Plate 2.38). The setal character changes abruptly from tibia to basi-- tarsus. ( x 78)

BOTTOM LEFT Femur-tibia articulation, lateral view. (x 93)

TOP LEFT. Medial view of the femur-tibia joint showing the flexible, nonsclerotized, intersegmental membrane connecting the two limbs. Many small setae stud this membrane. (x 182)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER HIND LEG

BOTTOM RIGHT. Photomontage of the hind (metathoracic) leg, lateral view. The ascending femur (on the right) articulates with the descending tibia, the base of which is the basitarsus. The pollen basket is comprised of the curved hairs surrounding the glabrous central area of the tibia. (x 31)

TOP RIGHT Medial surface of the leg showing the femur (right) and tibia ( x 3 1)

TOP LEFT. Higher magnification of the femur-tibia joint (the "knee") and its connective or intersegmental membrane (see the top right micrograph). (x 150)

MIDDLE LEFT Articulation between the tibia and basitarsus showing the pollen press. The rakelike group of hairs (rastellum) projects downward from the lobe called the auricle. The arrow indicates an area further magnified in the bottom left micrograph. ( x 95)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of the hairs located at the proximal apex of the basitarsus (arrow in middle left micrograph). These may be mechanoreceptors (external proprioceptors); if so, when the rastellum contacts the basitarsus the nerves in these hairs would inform the central nervous system of the attitude of the basitarsus relative to that of the tibia and whether any pollen was being pressed (collapsed pollen grains are visible at the base of the hairs). ( x 530)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER POLLEN BASKET

RIGHT Photomontage (a continuation from Plate 2.27) showing, from top to bottom, the lateral surface of the tibia, the basitarsus, and the remaining tarsomeres. The hair arrangement on the tibia is the basis of the pollen basket. The auricle (ridge) and its hair fringe at the Junction of the tibia and basitarsus are highlighted. (x 42)

TOP LEFT Higher magnification of the auricle with its fringe of hairs. Looming above these hairs is the rank of spines of the rastellum ("little rake"). (x 62)

MIDDLE LEFT Close-up of a portion (Six spines) of the rastellum situated at the joint between tibia and basitarsus (proximal view). (x 186)

BOTTOM LEFT. Distal tibia. Fine setae extend along the auricular ridge immediately above the rastellu123. Polygonal scales are evident on this ridge. (x 670)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER POLLEN PRESS

RIGHT Photomontage of the metathoracic (hind) leg and its medial surface. From top to bottom are the tibia, basitarsus, and four short tarsal segments. Between the tibia and basitarsus is the flattened, notched pollen press. The ranks of hairs act as combs for grooming and pollen gathering. When the basitarsal combs are loaded to capacity with pollen, the rastellum (rake) is used to unload the comb by scraping it into the press where the pollen is compressed and transferred to the tibial baskets on the outside surface above the pollen press. Hence, pollen groomed from the right side of the body is combed from the inner surfaces of the middle and forelegs by the left hind leg, from which it is removed by the right rastelhun for deposition in the pollen basket of the same leg. The opposite sequence is used for the left side. ( x 47)

MIDDLE LEFT Mediolateral view, of the pollen press. The floor of the press is edged with fine hairs, and its surface is covered with denticlelike cuticular spines or scales. Long, curved hairs from the tibia bend down and lie over the press and a picket of shorter, stiff spines (rastellum) lines the dorsomedial margin of the press. Small mechanoreceptor hairs are visible at the leading edge of the spatulate hairs (upper left). (x 100)

TOP LEFT Hairs on the medial surface of the tibia. The flattened-tip spatulate character of these hairs contrasts markedly with the basitarsal hairs, which have serrated edges and a fairly sharp tip. The specialized hairs of the tibia may have an important function in the process of gathering and packing pollen (see Plate 2.31). (x 560)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of the sharp cuticular spines (spicules) that line the floor of the pollen press and the finer hairs that form a fringe around the press. (x 400)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER HIND TIBIA, MEDIAL SURFACE

TOP LEFT. Low-magnification view of the spatulate hairs on the inside of the tibia. (x 560)

TOP RIGHT. Higher magnification of tibial hairs. The fluted and curvaceous character of the tibial hairs is evident. (x 1,705)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of tibial hairs showing their broad, flattened tips. (x 1,800)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Overview of tibial hairs on the hind leg. These particular hairs possess a geometry that seems ideal for holding or cradling small objects such as the pollen grain visible here. The fluted sides of the hair add surface area to enable a better grip on a pollen grain. The broad tip may be useful in combing pollen from wing surfaces. (x 750)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER ABDOMEN

Lateral view of the worker gaster (abdomen).

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER ABDOMINAL SPIRACLE

TOP RIGHT Spiracular aperture (arrow), visible directly below the origin of the hind wing posterior margin. The rather triangular lateral pleurite to the left of the spiracle is the supraepisternum of the metathorax. ( x 43)

TOP LEFT Close-up of the spiracular aperture and the inner longitudinal ridge that is part of the closing valve. A cuticular rim circles this, the largest of all worker spiracles. ( x 350)

BOTTOM RIGHT Second abdominal spiracle (arrow) The mesothoracic and then metathoracic coxae are visible (bottom left). (x 43)

BOTTOM LEFT Second abdominal spiracle showing its overall external shape and cuticular ri123. (x 350)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER PETIOLE, DORSAL VIEW

TOP Survey of the dorsal view of the petiole. At the very top is the broad posterior expanse of the propodeu123. Most of the figure is filled with the anterior face of the second abdominal tergu123. The petiole pocket is visible here as a small, cuticular, semicircular well that connects to a membranous petiole. (x 153)

MIDDLE Higher magnification of the elevated cupolalike area over the petiole pocket. The sparse and regular orientation of the cuticular tubercles in this membranous area is also visible. (x 680)

BOTTOM RIGHT Another view of the dorsal petiole showing the posteriorly directed membrane that extends over the propodeal cavity (x 250)

BOTTOM LEFT Lateral hair plate of the petiole. Stimulation of these mechanoreceptor hairs determines the degree of gravitational torsion of the gaster (abdomen) onto the petiole-thorax area. About three dozen large hairs and about twenty very short hairs make up this hair plate. It is not known if all of these socketed hairs are innervated. (x 435)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER PETIOLE, VENTRAL VIEW

TOP Two hair plates, one on each side of the petiolar joint. (x 153)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Petiolar hair plate. When the second abdominal sternum in moves, certain mechanosensory hairs on this plate are contacted (and thus stimulated). These external proprioceptors monitor the movement and position of the major part of the abdomen relative to the orientation of the thorax. (x 208)

BOTTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of the right petiolar hair plates. About fifty movable (in a preferred direction) mechanosensory hairs report the gravitational pull of the abdomen on the thorax. (x 420)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER A13DOMINAL WALL

TOP Photomontage of the fourth tergite (left) followed by the three terminal tergites (fifth, sixth, and seventh). These overlie and completely conceal the corresponding pleural elements so that the related sternites (bottom) apparently make contact with the tergites. Beneath the anterior position of sternites four to seven are the wax glands. The spiracles on the last two tergites are barely visible (arrows) ( x 3 1)

BOTTOM LEFT Branched hairs from the third abdominal sternite. Some of these hairs are attached to gland cells whose function in workers is unknown (see the discussion of Plate 1.41, bottom left micrograph). (x 170)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of the cuticular 11 scale" and setae (several forms) from the abdominal sclerites. (x 1, 116)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER ABDOMINAL SPIRACLES

TOP LEFT Photomontage of the abdomen showing the second and third abdominal spiracles (arrows). (x 31)

TOP RIGHT Higher magnification of the third abdominal spiracle. Cuticular hairs (two are visible) are not always present. No cuticular rim is evident. ( x 384)

BOTTOM LEFT. Higher magnification of the slitlike second abdominal spiracle. Note the longitudinally disposed valve extending parallel with the elongate sides of the spiracle. A patch of very short setae is visible on the right rim of the spiracle ( x 1, 118)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Close-up of the sculptured (shingled) appearance of the cuticle near the abdominal spiracles. (x 1,023)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER ABDOMEN, VENTRAL VIEW

TOP Abdominal sternites, ventral view. The glabrous surfaces are the wax " mirrors," or plates. Beneath these plates are the wax glands. Wax per- meates the mirrors and hardens into the visible wax scales from which the honey bees construct comb. The rastellum (see Plate 2.29), not the wax spur, on the hind leg is used to remove these scales when fully formed (rastellar marks are visible on the medial edges of the scales). (x 60)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of the lower left quadrant of the top micrograph showing the medial margin of the wax mirror and the adjacent wax scale. (x 136)

BOTTOM RIGHT Fully formed wax scale. (x 60)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER NASSANov GLAND

BOTTOM LEFT. Hairy sixth and the partly hairless seventh abdominal tergites. The glandular area behind the ridge is not exposed. This view complements the one in the top left micrograph, showing the entire expanse of this tergite. (x 56)

TOP LEFT. Lateral view of the last (seventh) abdominal tergum (dorsal is left). The smooth hairless area is dernarked by the strong submarginal inner ridge; above that is a margin of elevation on the tergu123. At the base of this tergum, between terga. six and seven is the scent gland of Nassanov. (x 65)

BOTTOM RIGHT. Pores in the seventh tergite, from which issues the orientation (aggregation) pheromone produced by the Nassanov gland. (x 1,240)

MIDDLE RIGHT. Higher magnification of the pores in the bottom right micrograph. (x 10,000)

TOP RIGHT. Close-up of the base of the seventh tergum, which is overlapped by the sixth tergite. (x 484)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER STING

BOTTOM RIGHT Exposed sting apparatus, ventral view. The base of the lancets extends upward into the right and left cuticular arcs (each made up of the first and second rami). At their base and extending laterally and down is the oblong plate. On the lateral margin of the plate is the quadrate plate, a shieldlike vestige of the ninth tergite. The two lobes of the sting sheath angle toward the distal lancets. (x 45)

MIDDLE. Distal tip of the sting. The serrated lancet is next to the protruding stylet. Not readily visible but present are campaniform sensilla assoclated with each barb (see also Plate 1.43, queen sting). (x 540)

TOP Photomontage of the sting, dorsal view. Visible are the first and second rami on the medial and lateral sides respectively of the doublearched extension of the triangular plate. This proximal part of the sting connects the lancets and stylet to the sting protractor muscles. A hairy lobe embraces the base of the lancets; this structure is believed to be the ventral wall of abdominal segment nine. (x 55)

BOTTOM LEFT Higher magnification of a barb on a lancet, about midway down the shaft of the lancet. (x 3,600)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

WORKER STING, RETRACTED

TOP RIGHT Sting apparatus, ventral view. Paired oblong plates straddle the lancets (exposed by dissection). On the dorsomedial surface of each oblong plate is a cleft (arrow). (x 91)

TOP LEFT. Higher magnification of the cleft in the top right micrograph. The background hairs are from a membrane thought to be the unsclerotized remains of the ventral wall of segment nine. ( x 868)

BOTTOM RIGHT Higher magnification of the base of the lancets in the top right micrograph. Two flangelike medial parts of the oblong plates cover part of the lancet base. Hairs of the lobe of the ninth segment are visible (lower right). (x 650)

BOTTOM LEFT. Two lancets with barbed edges overlying the more extended stylet. ( x 360)

 

工蜂的形态显微图

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